Penerapan pendekatan sensorik terhadap perancangan sekolah luar biasa (SLB) TK anak penyandang gangguan spektrum autisme (GSA) = Practising sensory approach in designing an ideal special preschool model for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Tunggono, Priscilla (2020) Penerapan pendekatan sensorik terhadap perancangan sekolah luar biasa (SLB) TK anak penyandang gangguan spektrum autisme (GSA) = Practising sensory approach in designing an ideal special preschool model for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Bachelor thesis, Universitas Pelita Harapan.

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Abstract

Gangguan Spektrum Autisme (GSA) merupakan gangguan perkembangan saraf otak yang menimbulkan gangguan sensorik-motorik pada penyandangnya. Penyandang GSA dapat menjadi hipersensitif atau hiposensitif terhadap aspek sensoris sekitarnya. Jumlah anak penyandang GSA di Jakarta telah menunjukkan peningkatan yang sangat signifikan namun belum diimbangi dengan fasilitas pendidikan yang memprioritaskan kenyamanan dan keamanan mereka. Respon terhadap keterbatasan sensorik secara fisik maupun non-fisik di sekolah-sekolah tersebut masih belum ramah bagi semua anak. Mereka dikategorikan ke dalam SLB golongan C, SLB ditujukan untuk anak penyandang Tunagrahita. SLB C di Jakarta masih memiliki banyak kekurangan pada aspek kualitas bangunan dalam merespon keterbatasan penyandang GSA. Padahal, arsitektur memiliki kemampuan untuk beradaptasi dengan penggunanya. Melalui pendekatan sensorik, kebutuhan penyandang GSA akan lebih terakomodasi dengan optimal. Dengan mendasari konsep perancangan bangunan berdasarkan kendala sensorik, arsitektur dapat menjadi sarana terapi bagi para penyandang. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendalilkan pengaruh penerapan pendekatan sensorik pada perancangan SLB, dalam mendukung perkembangan dan pembentukan bakat anak. Metode penelitian pada karya tulis ini menggunakan studi teori, preseden, dan lapangan. Studi teori berkaitan dengan pengenalan terhadap karakteristik klinis GSA, disfungsi sensorik hiper dan hiposensitif, serta aspek arsitektural yang ideal bagi anak dengan GSA. Pemahaman pengaruh atribut arsitektur terhadap anak dengan disfungsi hiper atau hiposensitif diuji dengan studi preseden sehingga muncul kriteria dan parameter yang digunakan sebagai pedoman desain untuk pengembangan kualitas SLB TK anak penyandang GSA sebagai ekstensi dari SLB C Kyriakon, Jakarta Selatan. Berdasarkan pengamatan awal beserta referensi yang telah dibaca oleh penulis, maka dapat ditarik hipotesis bahwa elemen disfungsi hiper dan hiposensitif pada anak penyandang GSA, mempengaruhi proses perkembangan anak dalam lingkungan pembelajaran. Pendekatan tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai panduan dalam perancangan kualitas ruang SLB TK yang ideal bagi anak penyandang GSA. / Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopment disorder that causes sensory-motor disorders. People with ASD can be hypersensitive or hyposensitive to the sensory aspects of the surrounding environment. The number of children with ASD in Jakarta has been increasing significantly, but they are not accommodated with educational facilities that prioritise their comfort and safety. The existing educational facilities are not made to respond the children’s physical and non-physical sensory limitations. They are forced to adjust to the existing environment and learning system, and are categorised into Class C Special Schools (SLB C), which are intended for children with intellectual disabilities. Acknowledging that architecture has the ability to fully adapt to its users, Class C Special Schools found in Jakarta is densely considered ineptitude in the case of responding to the limitations of people with ASD. Through the practice of sensory approach in architecture and by basing the concept of the school building’s design on their sensory deficiencies, architecture can aid as a therapeutic appliance and veritably meets the needs of people with ASD. Therefore, this thesis was conducted to postulate the effect of practicing sensory approach to the design of special schools in order to support the children's augmentations and interests. The analytical approach used in this thesis are theoretical, precedent, and on field studies. The theoretical study consists of introductions to the clinical characteristics of ASD, hyper and hyposensitive sensory dysfunction, as well as the ideal architectural aspects for children with ASD. Understanding the repercussion of architectural attributes on children with hyper or hyposensitive dysfunction was tested through precedent studies in order to acquire criteria and parameters, which later can be used as a design guidelines for improving the quality of special preschools for children with ASD as an extension of SLB C Kyriakon, South Jakarta. Based on preliminary observations and references that have been apprehended by the author, it can be hypothesised that the elements of hyper and hyposensitive dysfunction in children with ASD, affects the child's advancement process in their learning environment. This sensory approach can be demonstrated as a guide in designing an ideal special preschool model for children with ASD.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor)
Creators:
CreatorsNIMEmail
Tunggono, PriscillaNIM00000019229priscillaregita@gmail.com
Contributors:
ContributionContributorsNIDN/NIDKEmail
Thesis advisorMensana, Alvar PradianNIDN0301088101alvar.mensana@uph.edu
Uncontrolled Keywords: gangguan spektrum autisme; sensori; hipersensitif; hiposensitif; SLB TK
Subjects: N Fine Arts > NA Architecture
Divisions: University Subject > Current > Faculty/School - UPH Karawaci > School of Design > Architecture
Current > Faculty/School - UPH Karawaci > School of Design > Architecture
Depositing User: Users 5941 not found.
Date Deposited: 24 Aug 2020 02:52
Last Modified: 11 Sep 2020 05:56
URI: http://repository.uph.edu/id/eprint/10597

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