Respon Amerika Serikat terhadap tindakan narko-terorisme dari Kartel Medellin pada tahun 1988-1993 = The United States responses to Medellin Cartel's narcoterrorism in 1988-1993

Juno, Rio Alessandro (2021) Respon Amerika Serikat terhadap tindakan narko-terorisme dari Kartel Medellin pada tahun 1988-1993 = The United States responses to Medellin Cartel's narcoterrorism in 1988-1993. Bachelor thesis, Universitas Pelita Harapan.

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Abstract

Perang dingin telah merubah seluruh dunia menjadi suatu panggung raksasa untuk kontes geopolitik, antara Amerika Serikat dan Uni Soviet. Bagi Amerika, pengaruh Soviet bukan satu-satunya yang mengancam kepentingan nasional AS, namun AS juga harus mengamankan “halaman belakang”-nya sendiri dari munculnya musuh baru. Salah satu mitra strategis Amerika, Kolombia, terancam dari kemunculan aktor non-negara yang menggunakan kekerasan, berupa gerakan gerilya dan kartel narkoba. Untuk menjaga keberlangsungan pemerintahan yang pro-Amerika Serikat di Kolombia, pemerintah Amerika memutuskan untuk ikut campur secara langsung dalam menjaga status quo di Kolombia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan bagaimana Amerika Serikat merespon tindakan narco-terorisme dari sudut pandang realisme neoklasik. Terdapat juga beberapa konsep yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini; kontes geopolitik, keamanan nasional, kejahatan transnasional yang teroganisir, dan diplomasi jalan belakang. Penelitian ini menyampaikan penjelasan secara penelitian historis yang digabungkan dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa respon kebijakan AS sangat mengandalkan kemampuan militer AS yang tinggi untuk melawan kartel Medellín. Walaupun tingkat kekerasan justru meningkat sejak kedatangan pasukan AS di Kolombia, AS tetap tidak memiliki niat untuk mengurangi konfrontasi. Pada faktanya, anggaran militer dan jumlah pasukan yang di kirim untuk Kolombia selalu meningkat. Selain bentuk-bentuk respon kebijakan, terdapat juga banyak pelajaran yang bisa dipetik dari keterlibatan AS di perang narkoba ini. Walaupun kejadian ini terjadi hampir seluruhnya di Kolombia, kejadian ini tetap mengirimkan pesan kepada seluruh dunia bahwa narkoba telah menjadi suatu tantangan global. / Cold War had turned the world into a huge stage for geopolitical contest, between the United States and Soviet Union. For the United States, Soviet influence was not the only one that threaten their national interest, but also securing their “backyard” from the emergence of any upcoming adversaries. One of US’ strategic partner, Colombia, was threatened by the emergence of violent nonstate actors, as in guerilla movements and drug cartels. To preserve a pro-US government in Colombia, the US government decided to involve directly in maintaining the status quo in Colombia. This research aims to point out how the US responses to the act of narcoterrorism through the perspective of neoclassical realist. There are also multiple concepts that are used in this research; geopolitical contest, national security, transnational organized crime and backdoor diplomacy. This research uses the method of historical research combined with qualitative approach. The findings from this research shows the US policy responses were heavily relied on their huge military capabilities to counter the Medellín Cartel. Despite the escalation of violence since US force arrival in Colombia, they did not have any intention to reduce further armed confrontations. In fact, the military budget and forces that were sent to Colombia keeps on expanding. Besides policy responses, multiple lessons can be inferred from US involvement in this drug war. Although the event was mostly happened in Colombia, it sent a message to the world that drugs have become a global challenge.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor)
Creators:
CreatorsNIMEmail
Juno, Rio AlessandroNIM01043170048rioalessandro54@gmail.com
Contributors:
ContributionContributorsNIDN/NIDKEmail
Thesis advisorTambunan, Edwin MartuaNIDN0320076901edwin.tambunan@uph.edu
Uncontrolled Keywords: perang dingin; kontes geopolitik; kejahatan transnasional yang terorganisir; keamanan nasional; diplomasi jalan belakang; narko-terorisme; Kartel Medellin; Amerika Serikat; Kolombia; cold war; geopolitical contest; transnational organized crime; national security; backdoor diplomacy; narcoterrorism; Medellin Cartel; The United States of America; Colombia
Subjects: J Political Science > JZ International relations
Divisions: University Subject > Current > Faculty/School - UPH Karawaci > Faculty of Social and Political Science > International Relations
Current > Faculty/School - UPH Karawaci > Faculty of Social and Political Science > International Relations
Depositing User: Users 6490 not found.
Date Deposited: 27 Jan 2021 08:00
Last Modified: 27 Jan 2021 08:00
URI: http://repository.uph.edu/id/eprint/14309

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